I got to look at my mom’s family tree this weekend. Jacob Grass got on a ship sailing from Hanover in 1752 called The Nancy (my mom’s name). He came to what would become the United States to begin with but of course it was 1752 and the United States did not exist yet.
I am also descended from a Cameron and a MacGregor. No wonder I’ve always been a Jacobite! But! Also, a Hanoverian! No wonder I’m so mixed up.
And so there are roots and bones stretching back through time, to people I don’t know and am only beginning to learn about. I am Jacob Grass, I have his genetics. Perhaps I look like him or at least recall an expression he had in some forgotten way and it’s all jumbled together with everyone else to create something uniquely mine, uniquely me.
Jacob Grass took a risk. He got on a ship to an unknown land and he tried something. Why did he do this? Was he leaving something? Or going towards something else?
I wonder if he liked tea. And cats.
Why history? If it is a bewildering clutter of dates and names, no wonder people lose interest. Stories have power and influence, so this is better. But still, why? Why should anyone care about what happened in the past, and what influence does it have on our daily lives?
October is the right time to explore themes like this, to ask questions of the ghosts that haunt us, and reflect on how we can perhaps be connected to and guided by them instead.
Sometimes, the impact of history is big and broad … like a war that killed two percent of the British population or twenty million missing bison.
And sometimes, it can be small and relevant to how we can live life today, just now.
I’ll tell you about a little practice that I have. I say good morning to my grandmas every day. When I make my tea, I use tea cups that were given by my great granny to her daughter-in-law, my grandma. My other great-grandmother gave my grandma (her daughter) a tea caddy as a birthday present. I don’t have anything that belongs to my mom’s mother, but I say good morning to that stylish, courageous French girl with the beautiful structured jawline every morning too. I do have something of hers! That determined, rather elegant jaw. Merci, madame.
I imagine getting a hug from each grandma. It makes me feel rooted and connected as I start my day. And sometimes to be honest the rest of the day isn’t very good. But I can start off feeling loved and supported. I think this is a small example of how history can help us to live more thoughtful, meaningful and loving lives.
If I’m descended from healers (nurses) and teachers, I’m also descended from warriors. The Gordon Highlanders Museum sent us my great-grandfather’s war record from World War One a few weeks ago. Henry Grey was awarded three medals.
1. The Military Cross
2. The British War Medal
3. The Victory Medal.
Henry witnessed and suffered terror that I cannot imagine, was wounded several times, and he also experienced the drudgery and discomfort and boredom and loneliness of that forgotten and overlooked time between battles that soldiers also experience.
I think, how hard that must have been … awful food, the dreaded endless rounds of Mulligatawny soup, wet feet, uncomfortable beds, or no beds. Loneliness.
I’ve seen my great-grandfather’s battle box. He would collect it at the end of the day and it contained his things … extra socks, letters, a book or two perhaps. Maybe someone had sent your favourite cookies or some other treat from home. Some soldiers didn’t get anything from anyone. And of course there were the leftover battle boxes at the end of the day that no one came to collect.
I had an awful dream this summer that my nephew went off to war with a battle box that his dad had lovingly made for him. At the end of the day, a wagon came round and that battle box was still in there. I started screaming, “No! No! No!”
Honestly, my brain sometimes.
My great-grandfather did meet a warrior who confounded and defied him and that was his own daughter, my great-auntie Mary, who of course wasn’t anyone’s great auntie at the time but a little girl with auburn curls and a determined chin that recalled her father growing up in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan in the 1930s. She refused to eat porridge for breakfast and went toe to toe with this warrior who had been wounded and decorated and survived the deadliest conflict in human history.
And she stood him right down. He told her she’d have porridge for breakfast or go hungry and this is just what the young lady did. Every day … for years. Even the most implacable soldier will inevitably meet his … or her … match.
I do eat porridge because it’s cheap and I rather like it this time of year. I made it today and giggled when I was thinking about this story.
Those are some roots and bones for today, and I hope you find it nourishing. History, said Thomas Moore, is food for the soul. And sometimes the local and homegrown history is best of all.
“The plains are large and wide. We are the children of the plains, it is our home, and the buffalo have been our food, always.”
— Chief Crowfoot negotiates the signing of Treaty 7, 142 years ago today.
Treaty 7 was the agreement the British crown signed with the people in my area (what is now southern Alberta, Canada).
Siksika, Kainai, Piikani, Chiniki, Wesley, Bearspaw and Tsuu Tina and of course us pioneers/settlers made a legal agreement, promising that we would all live together, and keep the peace. The Métis were most certainly present in southern Alberta too but they were not given an opportunity to make a treaty at all and this was to have ongoing fall out that continues to this day.
Many bad times were to come for the people who signed the treaty. During the 1870s the Canadian government was dealing with a worldwide recession and they were putting pressure on their agents in western Canada to save money when it came to dealing with indigenous populations. People who lived in western Canada at the time had these prophetic things to say:
“When the government has to spend $100,000.00 to perform what $10.00 would accomplish at present, they may wake to find they have been sleeping on a volcano.”
— Dickieson, 1878.
“But as the wise men at Ottawa know more of the Indians and Indian matters than those of us who have passed a lifetime among them, it is little use saying anything under the circumstances. Master Indian is going to cost the country a trifle more than they fancy.”
— Archibald MacDonald, 1879.
Also, doesn’t this sound familiar, with people in western Canada trying to advise the federal government of a preventable but rapidly looming crises being ignored?
This is James Macleod. He was a colonel in the NWMP in the north-west Territories at the time Treaty 7 was signed (the NWMP arrived in Calgary in 1875). He once said this about building relationships with First Nations people:
“It is quite unnecessary to lavish presents upon the Indians. The great thing is to treat them kindly by providing them with the room where we ourselves sit, give them a cup of tea or coffee and a piece of bread and as much tobacco as they can smoke, speak to them about their camps, the buffalo and their horses and they go away perfectly contented.”
This seems to me to be the way to build a relationship with anyone: go for tea or coffee, ask them about things that are important to them, be a good listener and if you have something they enjoy, share it.
The contemporary perspective would be to cool it with the tobacco, though!
At the time, smoking a ceremonial pipe together had a spiritual significance that the British Crown and Canadian government did not fully understand. “Peace pipe” was the closest they could come to describing the ritual. But in fact, tobacco was a sacred plant that would ensure that only the truth was spoken by the negotiators. And whilst the indigenous chiefs smoked the pipe along with Colonel Macleod and the other western Canadians who had a vested interest in making this new agreement work, David Laird, who represented the Crown, did not.
When Prince Charles visited Blackfoot Crossing in 1977 for the one hundredth anniversary of the signing of Treaty 7 he did smoke a pipe. But when Canada got its own constitution just a few years later, the British Crown gave the Treaties over to the Canadian government as part of the deal.
“The plains Indians surrendered 50,000 square miles to the invading white men on the understanding that a better future awaited them. In the months following the signing [of Treaty 7] more than 600 Blackfoot died of starvation.”
— Garrett Wilson
At least from my perspective, there have been good times — my favourite part has been sharing cups of tea and listening to each other’s stories. I will do my best to be a good neighbour no matter what the different levels of government decide to do next!
“Great Father! Take pity on me with regard to my country, with regard to the mountains, the hills and the valleys; with regard to the prairies, the forests and the waters; with regard to the animals that inhabit them, and do not take them from myself and my children forever.”
— Crowfoot signs Treaty 7.
The Great Blackfoot Treaties by High Dempsey
Frontier Farewell by Garrett Wilson
Clearing the Plains: Disease, Politics of Starvation, and the Loss of Aboriginal Life by James William Daschuk
The Banker and the Blackfoot by J. Edward Chamberlin
The story of Southern Alberta is inextricably linked with animals grazing … first, the mighty herds of bison, then … and now … the cattle that produce the world famous Alberta Beef that Albertans are justifiably proud of.
What many people don’t realize however is that our early pioneer/settler history also included vast flocks of sheep. This was a time when everything … carpets, clothing … were made from wool, so sheep travelled west when the settlers did. One of the earliest families in the Midnapore area, the Shaws, travelled west with the intention of setting up a woolen mill. There are photographs in the Glenbow Archives that show big flocks of sheep on the hills above Calgary where Crescent Heights are now; thanks to Alan Zakrison for supplying the image that I was too lazy to track down!
Local rancher George McElroy decided to try his hand at the sheep ranching business. He pastured his flock in the Rosebud Creek area east of Carstairs and is recorded as being the first white man to see the area. There is a butte in the area known as McElroy’s butte.
George also built a sod house and sheep shed, and employed a shepherd. The business must have prospered, because there are photographs of flocks numbering over 2,000 sheep. George spent three years in Alberta before he could afford to buy his first cow.
George gave up the sheep business after a heavy growth of speargrass wiped out his entire herd. He later wrote that he had been in Alberta for eight years and had nothing to show for it. George recalled with gratitude that it was a loan from a friend at the Southern Alberta Pioneers that gave him the help he needed to start again, this time turning to cattle ranching.
These days, we have a huge range of options when it comes to fabric and clothing but sheep are still important.
At Custom Woolen Mills in the Carstairs area, you can witness the history of wool because the woolen mill works five days a week!
The mill has been running since the 1970s but the equipment is much older than that. The newest machine on the place is from 1927!
Accidents … you typically don’t have to worry about fires at a woolen mill. Wool is a fire retardant and if it catches on fire it will extinguish itself immediately.
The Spinning Jenny was a machine that triggered the industrial revolution with machines mimicking handspinning. Unfortunately, the textile industry was … and still is … often unethical with regards to human rights and the environment. The textile industry in the 1900s relied on child labourers. Lewis Hine wrote an expose letting the public know about the unsafe and abusive environments children were working in. You can find his photo journalism online.
This carding machine has been in business since 1910! And it still works Monday to Friday, 9 to 5.
This photograph was taken in the late 1960s, when there was still a train bridge across the Elbow River right where it plugs into the Bow. Goose Island is there and I see the Foothills Hospital in the background! Do you recognize any of the other buildings?
Thank you to Alan Zakrison for sharing this photograph with me! You can follow this local historian on Twitter at @AlanZakrison … he leads “Twitter Tours” accompanied by maps, photographs and other great visuals.
I’m reading a book called Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life by Kingsley M. Bray right now.
In both Canada and the United States, the disappearance of the buffalo was the biggest humanitarian and environmental catastrophe that you’ve never heard of. Scientists are only beginning to recognize now that cattle also introduced diseases into wild herds that weakened them.
The American government wanted the bison gone — it had two transcontinental railroads to build and dealing with freedom fighters like Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull was impossible as long as they had access to the food and shelter supplied by those big herds.
Here in Canada, the situation was slightly different. The government knew the bison would be gone eventually but their priority was not to be financially responsible for the First Nations people in western Canada. They thought they had time, and if you had ever seen one of those massive herds you would have understood why they believed that.
Let’s say you and I are standing on a rise in the prairie. We say to each other, “Do you hear that?” But that isn’t exactly what we mean. What we mean is do you FEEL that … the sound is coming out of the ground up through our feet. An hour later … look to the north as far as you can, look to the south as far as you can. That herd is a mile wide, and it passes us by for an hour. You would never, ever forget a sight like that.
Only two years after Treaty 7 was signed in 1877 (the agreement the Crown signed with the indigenous people and settlers in my area) the bison were gone from southern Alberta and the people here were starving. We talk about the bison on the tour of Chestermere that’s happening tonight — did we have bison herds in this area? Come to find out how glacier rocks and a natural prairie spring offer us some clues.
Among the recruits who marched west with
the F Troop in 1874 in search of the place where the Bow and Elbow Rivers met
were immigrants from Europe who brought the game of rugby with them from their
faraway homes. Rugby is known to have been played in Calgary as early as 1883.
This match was played at the NWMP barracks at Fort Calgary with the Deane House
in the background.
Meanwhile, the First Nations people were willing to give some of the new Canadian sporting events a try. However sometimes the game made no sense. For instance, when it came to football, why would you let another person attack you? In his book NWMP: The North West Mounted Police 1874 – 1885, Jack F. Dunn describes a rugby/football match that went awry: “One day at Fort Walsh, several Indians were invited to join a rugby match. The game took other dimensions, however, when a shoulder block by constable George Adams sent one Indian opponent flying. When the downed man got up and drew a knife, Adams “made for the fort”. ”
The Calgary Tigers were formed officially at a meeting on August 27, 1908. Practices were at 5.00 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays where Riley Park is located now and the season would run from September until the end of October.
The first rugby/football uniforms were canvas pants and leather helmets. Pads were not used for playing or practice until the late 1920s. Sprains and broken bones were common. Concussions happened too, but they were not recognized as causing potentially serious and permanent damage to the brain we recognize today.
Imagine we could bundle up on a beautiful September night in 1908 and head down to Riley Park to watch the Calgary Tigers in action. What sort of game could we expect to see? Well, football at the time was English-style rugby … kicking, tackling, punting. Also, North Hill in the background with not a structure or a tree in sight!
Go Stamps Go! Graham Kelly
NWMP: The North West Mounted Police: 1873 – 1885 by Jack F. Dunn
Have you ever heard of the First Nations Sacred Ceremonial Objects Repatriation Act (FNSCORA)? Alberta began the new millennium by becoming the first province in Canada to pass legislation that stated the Alberta government’s collections of sacred Indigenous objects in the Glenbow and the Royal Alberta Museum needed to be restored to the communities they came from so they could return to ceremonial use. From the First Nations perspective these ceremonial objects were not objects at all but were living beings … beings who had been in captivity for a long time. You can read more about this important legislation here and here.
Gerald T. Conaty was the curator at the Glenbow Museum when this legislation was passed and he was responsible for the repatriation of many sacred beings to Siksika, Kainai and Piikani First Nations around southern Alberta during the 1990s. You can read more about this incredible Made in Alberta true story in We Are Coming Home, a book edited by Conaty, which explores the challenging history that museums have had with indigenous people and what he and others decided to do about it.
23 and 28 August of 1876: the British Crown signed an agreement with Plains and Woods Cree, Assiniboine, and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton and Fort Pitt.
Significant agreements in Treaty Six that don`t appear in any other treaty? A famine clause. Three years later the bison were gone, and there’s your famine. There is also a Medicine Chest Clause that is still disputed today.
Another significant outcome of this treaty…… some Cree Chiefs such as Big Bear and Poundmaker refused to sign it, setting the stage for the terrible confrontation between the Canadian Government and the Metis and First Nations people during the North West Rebellion.
“This is our land! It isn’t a piece of pemmican to be cut off and given in little pieces back to us. It is ours and we will take what we want.”
Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker) refuses to sign Treaty Six, August 1876.
“We want none of the Queen’s presents! When we set a fox trap we scatter pieces of meat all around but when the fox gets into the trap we knock him on the head. We want no baits. Let your chiefs come to us like men and talk to us.”
Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear) refuses to sign Treaty Six, August 1876.
Loyal Till Death: Indians and the North-West Rebellion by Bill Waiser and Blair Stonechild
On this date, 15 July 1854 – Cuthbert Grant died after being thrown from a horse.
Whilst Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont may be better known, many Metis in Canada and the United States trace their ancestry to Cuthbert Grant.
Grant was a farmer, the father of thirteen children, an employee of the North West Company and a commander in the Battle of Seven Oaks. You can read more about his life here.
This article describes a historic visit in 2012 by Sir James Grant of Scotland, also known as Lord Strathspey. The occasion formally acknowledged that Cuthbert Grant was a clan member, making his descendants an official sept (branch) of the Grant clan in Scotland.