treaty six

23 and 28 August of 1876: the British Crown signed an agreement with Plains and Woods Cree, Assiniboine, and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton and Fort Pitt.

Significant agreements in Treaty Six that don`t appear in any other treaty? A famine clause. Three years later the bison were gone, and there’s your famine. There is also a Medicine Chest Clause that is still disputed today.

Another significant outcome of this treaty…… some Cree Chiefs such as Big Bear and Poundmaker refused to sign it, setting the stage for the terrible confrontation between the Canadian Government and the Metis and First Nations people during the North West Rebellion.

“This is our land! It isn’t a piece of pemmican to be cut off and given in little pieces back to us. It is ours and we will take what we want.”

Pitikwahanapiwiyin (Poundmaker) refuses to sign Treaty Six, August 1876.

“We want none of the Queen’s presents! When we set a fox trap we scatter pieces of meat all around but when the fox gets into the trap we knock him on the head. We want no baits. Let your chiefs come to us like men and talk to us.”

Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear) refuses to sign Treaty Six, August 1876.

Read More:

  • Loyal Till Death: Indians and the North-West Rebellion by Bill Waiser and Blair Stonechild
  • Frontier Farewell by Garrett Wilson

ghost tracks

I don’t want to overthink this. The point of this blog is that homebodies like us need wonder and learning and history and new experiences, just like the fearless world travellers who we love and admire. We too can be badasses! We just want to sleep in our own beds at night.

So, a lot of this adventure is going to be me walking around and saying, “Oh, look at that,” and pointing at things that are right in front of me.

For instance, the importance of the railway to little communities fifty or one hundred years ago can’t be overstated. The tracks of the train cross and recross the prairie the way the trails of the bison must surely have done, once. Trains were the lifeblood, connecting communities and transporting goods, especially the most important product of all… grain.

The way that we in southern Alberta now obsess over pipelines for gas, oil and bitumen echos the way that a line to transport grain was once the rallying flag of many communities. In fact, one of the reasons that there was so much animosity and ill will towards the federal government in 1885 was that the decision to route the CPR line through Regina and Calgary rather than north through Saskatoon and Edmonton as had previously been promised completely screwed over the settlers who had purchased land in anticipation of having access to that northern line. People were so furious and resentful that some of the First Nations and Metis people who started the Northwest Rebellion had good reason to believe that settlers would join their fight as they were almost as angry with Ottawa as indigenous people were. This is really important for us to understand as western Canadians today — that this break and disenfranchisement with Ottawa and the federal government that are such familiar themes now started from day one.

Many towns that are now nothing but a dot on the map used to be thriving and self contained little places, all connected and kept alive by the arteries of the railroad. When we were discussing this on Twitter, my friend @forevercalgaryred said,

“My home town had 2 grocery stores, [a] Chinese restaurant, hardware store, gas station… has a curling rink/community hall.”

Mine too! My “town” is now some houses, a hall and a row of mailboxes. There are no services (the community hall doesn’t have a curling rink, although we do have a baseball diamond). Once upon a time there was a post office, a grocery store, a gas station and tractor dealership (which was actually located in my house — but that’s a story for another day), and of course a grain elevator.

As grain collection became more centralized, many railway stops became redundant and then irrelevant. Some towns disappeared altogether when they lost their train stop, whilst others lost every single source of industry that they had.

Isn’t interesting how when I go even a few miles away I see things more clearly? Below there is a photograph of the old train line that used to run along 9th Avenue in Inglewood. The photo shows the remains of the old track that traveled right through Fort Calgary.

But below that, the photographs are simply from the walk that I take nearly every day through my own town — the raised scar shows where the train used to pass through, and stop. Now, the tracks and ties are gone and a longhorn with a very impressive rack of horns regards me with disinterested dignity as she grazes on the ghost tracks.

After the train — the tracks used to run right along the Bow River and 9th Avenue in Inglewood. You can still see the raised path running through Fort Calgary.